What if I have more Columns than Rows in my dataset? Machine learning datasets are often structured or tabular data comprised of rows and columns. The columns that are fed as input to a model are called predictors or “p” and the rows are samples “n“. Most machine learning algorithms assume that there are many […]

## How to Use One-vs-Rest and One-vs-One for Multi-Class Classification

Not all classification predictive models support multi-class classification. Algorithms such as the Perceptron, Logistic Regression, and Support Vector Machines were designed for binary classification and do not natively support classification tasks with more than two classes. One approach for using binary classification algorithms for multi-classification problems is to split the multi-class classification dataset into multiple […]

## Stacking Ensemble Machine Learning With Python

Stacking or Stacked Generalization is an ensemble machine learning algorithm. It uses a meta-learning algorithm to learn how to best combine the predictions from two or more base machine learning algorithms. The benefit of stacking is that it can harness the capabilities of a range of well-performing models on a classification or regression task and […]

## 4 Types of Classification Tasks in Machine Learning

Machine learning is a field of study and is concerned with algorithms that learn from examples. Classification is a task that requires the use of machine learning algorithms that learn how to assign a class label to examples from the problem domain. An easy to understand example is classifying emails as “spam” or “not spam.” […]

## 10 Clustering Algorithms With Python

Clustering or cluster analysis is an unsupervised learning problem. It is often used as a data analysis technique for discovering interesting patterns in data, such as groups of customers based on their behavior. There are many clustering algorithms to choose from and no single best clustering algorithm for all cases. Instead, it is a good […]

## What Is Argmax in Machine Learning?

Argmax is a mathematical function that you may encounter in applied machine learning. For example, you may see “argmax” or “arg max” used in a research paper used to describe an algorithm. You may also be instructed to use the argmax function in your algorithm implementation. This may be the first time that you encounter […]

## Gradient Boosting with Scikit-Learn, XGBoost, LightGBM, and CatBoost

Gradient boosting is a powerful ensemble machine learning algorithm. It’s popular for structured predictive modeling problems, such as classification and regression on tabular data, and is often the main algorithm or one of the main algorithms used in winning solutions to machine learning competitions, like those on Kaggle. There are many implementations of gradient boosting […]

## How to Calculate Feature Importance With Python

Feature importance refers to techniques that assign a score to input features based on how useful they are at predicting a target variable. There are many types and sources of feature importance scores, although popular examples include statistical correlation scores, coefficients calculated as part of linear models, decision trees, and permutation importance scores. Feature importance […]

## How to Develop Multi-Output Regression Models with Python

Multioutput regression are regression problems that involve predicting two or more numerical values given an input example. An example might be to predict a coordinate given an input, e.g. predicting x and y values. Another example would be multi-step time series forecasting that involves predicting multiple future time series of a given variable. Many machine […]

## 4 Distance Measures for Machine Learning

Distance measures play an important role in machine learning. They provide the foundation for many popular and effective machine learning algorithms like k-nearest neighbors for supervised learning and k-means clustering for unsupervised learning. Different distance measures must be chosen and used depending on the types of the data. As such, it is important to know […]