Deep Learning for Time Series Forecasting Crash Course. Bring Deep Learning methods to Your Time Series project in 7 Days. Time series forecasting is challenging, especially when working with long sequences, noisy data, multi-step forecasts and multiple input and output variables. Deep learning methods offer a lot of promise for time series forecasting, such as […]

## How and When to Use a Calibrated Classification Model with scikit-learn

Instead of predicting class values directly for a classification problem, it can be convenient to predict the probability of an observation belonging to each possible class. Predicting probabilities allows some flexibility including deciding how to interpret the probabilities, presenting predictions with uncertainty, and providing more nuanced ways to evaluate the skill of the model. Predicted […]

## How and When to Use ROC Curves and Precision-Recall Curves for Classification in Python

It can be more flexible to predict probabilities of an observation belonging to each class in a classification problem rather than predicting classes directly. This flexibility comes from the way that probabilities may be interpreted using different thresholds that allow the operator of the model to trade-off concerns in the errors made by the model, […]

## How to Predict Room Occupancy Based on Environmental Factors

Small computers, such as Arduino devices, can be used within buildings to record environmental variables from which simple and useful properties can be predicted. One example is predicting whether a room or rooms are occupied based on environmental measures such as temperature, humidity, and related measures. This is a type of common time series classification […]

## How to Predict Whether a Persons Eyes are Open or Closed Using Brain Waves

A Case Study in How to Avoid Methodological Errors when Evaluating Machine Learning Methods for Time Series Forecasting. Evaluating machine learning models on time series forecasting problems is challenging. It is easy to make a small error in the framing of a problem or in the evaluation of models that give impressive results but result […]

## How to Model Volatility with ARCH and GARCH for Time Series Forecasting in Python

A change in the variance or volatility over time can cause problems when modeling time series with classical methods like ARIMA. The ARCH or Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity method provides a way to model a change in variance in a time series that is time dependent, such as increasing or decreasing volatility. An extension of this approach […]

## 4 Common Machine Learning Data Transforms for Time Series Forecasting

Time series data often requires some preparation prior to being modeled with machine learning algorithms. For example, differencing operations can be used to remove trend and seasonal structure from the sequence in order to simplify the prediction problem. Some algorithms, such as neural networks, prefer data to be standardized and/or normalized prior to modeling. Any […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Exponential Smoothing for Time Series Forecasting in Python

Exponential smoothing is a time series forecasting method for univariate data that can be extended to support data with a systematic trend or seasonal component. It is a powerful forecasting method that may be used as an alternative to the popular Box-Jenkins ARIMA family of methods. In this tutorial, you will discover the exponential smoothing […]

## A Gentle Introduction to SARIMA for Time Series Forecasting in Python

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, or ARIMA, is one of the most widely used forecasting methods for univariate time series data forecasting. Although the method can handle data with a trend, it does not support time series with a seasonal component. An extension to ARIMA that supports the direct modeling of the seasonal component of the […]

## 15 Statistical Hypothesis Tests in Python (Cheat Sheet)

Quick-reference guide to the 15 statistical hypothesis tests that you need in applied machine learning, with sample code in Python. Although there are hundreds of statistical hypothesis tests that you could use, there is only a small subset that you may need to use in a machine learning project. In this post, you will discover […]