Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms

What is supervised machine learning and how does it relate to unsupervised machine learning?

In this post you will discover supervised learning, unsupervised learning and semis-supervised learning. After reading this post you will know:

  • About the classification and regression supervised learning problems.
  • About the clustering and association unsupervised learning problems.
  • Example algorithms used for supervised and unsupervised problems.
  • A problem that sits in between supervised and unsupervised learning called semi-supervised learning.

Let’s get started.

Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms

Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms
Photo by US Department of Education, some rights reserved.

Supervised Machine Learning

The majority of practical machine learning uses supervised learning.

Supervised learning is where you have input variables (x) and an output variable (Y) and you use an algorithm to learn the mapping function from the input to the output.

Y = f(X)

The goal is to approximate the mapping function so well that when you have new input data (x) that you can predict the output variables (Y) for that data.

It is called supervised learning because the process of an algorithm learning from the training dataset can be thought of as a teacher supervising the learning process. We know the correct answers, the algorithm iteratively makes predictions on the training data and is corrected by the teacher. Learning stops when the algorithm achieves an acceptable level of performance.

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Supervised learning problems can be further grouped into regression and classification problems.

  • Classification: A classification problem is when the output variable is a category, such as “red” or “blue” or “disease” and “no disease”.
  • Regression: A regression problem is when the output variable is a real value, such as “dollars” or “weight”.

Some common types of problems built on top of classification and regression include recommendation and time series prediction respectively.

Some popular examples of supervised machine learning algorithms are:

  • Linear regression for regression problems.
  • Random forest for classification and regression problems.
  • Support vector machines for classification problems.

Unsupervised Machine Learning

Unsupervised learning is where you only have input data (X) and no corresponding output variables.

The goal for unsupervised learning is to model the underlying structure or distribution in the data in order to learn more about the data.

These are called unsupervised learning because unlike supervised learning above there is no correct answers and there is no teacher. Algorithms are left to their own devises to discover and present the interesting structure in the data.

Unsupervised learning problems can be further grouped into clustering and association problems.

  • Clustering: A clustering problem is where you want to discover the inherent groupings in the data, such as grouping customers by purchasing behavior.
  • Association:  An association rule learning problem is where you want to discover rules that describe large portions of your data, such as people that buy X also tend to buy Y.

Some popular examples of unsupervised learning algorithms are:

  • k-means for clustering problems.
  • Apriori algorithm for association rule learning problems.

Semi-Supervised Machine Learning

Problems where you have a large amount of input data (X) and only some of the data is labeled (Y) are called semi-supervised learning problems.

These problems sit in between both supervised and unsupervised learning.

A good example is a photo archive where only some of the images are labeled, (e.g. dog, cat, person) and the majority are unlabeled.

Many real world machine learning problems fall into this area. This is because it can be expensive or time-consuming to label data as it may require access to domain experts. Whereas unlabeled data is cheap and easy to collect and store.

You can use unsupervised learning techniques to discover and learn the structure in the input variables.

You can also use supervised learning techniques to make best guess predictions for the unlabeled data, feed that data back into the supervised learning algorithm as training data and use the model to make predictions on new unseen data.


In this post you learned the difference between supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. You now know that:

  • Supervised: All data is labeled and the algorithms learn to predict the output from the input data.
  • Unsupervised: All data is unlabeled and the algorithms learn to inherent structure from the input data.
  • Semi-supervised: Some data is labeled but most of it is unlabeled and a mixture of supervised and unsupervised techniques can be used.

Do you have any questions about supervised, unsupervised or semi-supervised learning? Leave a comment and ask your question and I will do my best to answer it.

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83 Responses to Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms

  1. Omot August 20, 2016 at 2:32 pm #

    Thanks for this post. That was helpful. My question is how does one determine the correct algorithm to use for a particular problem in supervised learning? Also,can a network trained by unsupervised learning be tested with new set of data (testing data) or its just for the purpose of grouping?

    • Jason Brownlee August 21, 2016 at 6:15 am #

      Hi Omot, it is a good idea to try a suite of standard algorithms on your problem and discover what algorithm performs best.

      Normally, an unsupervised method is applied to all data available in order to learn something about that data and the broader problem. You could say cluster a “training” dataset and later see what clusters new data is closest to if you wanted to avoid re-clustering the data.

    • angel November 22, 2016 at 9:58 am #

      I need help in solving a problem. I have utilized all resources available and the school can’t find a tutor in this subject. My question is this: What is the best method to choose if you want to train an algorithm that can discriminate between patients with hypertension and patients with hypertension and diabetes. Please help me understand!

  2. Pragya Poonia August 23, 2016 at 1:08 pm #

    This content is really helpful. Can you give some examples of all these techniques with best description?? or a brief introduction of Reinforcement learning with example??

  3. Naveen October 10, 2016 at 8:16 pm #

    Hi Jason,

    Thank you for summary on types of ML algorithms
    How can one use clustering or unsupervised learning for prediction on a new data. I have clustered the input data into clusters using hierarchical clustering, Now I want to check the membership of new data with the identified clusters. How is it possible. Is there an algorithm available in R?

    • Jason Brownlee October 11, 2016 at 7:23 am #

      Hi Naveen, generally I don’t use unsupervised methods much as I don’t get much value from them in practice.

      You can use the cluster number, cluster centroid or other details as an input for modeling.

  4. Tashrif October 25, 2016 at 9:03 am #

    Could you please give me a real world example of supervised, unsupervised, and semi supervised learning?

    • Jason Brownlee October 26, 2016 at 8:25 am #

      Hi Tashrif,

      Supervised would be when you have a ton of labeled pictures of dogs and cats and you want to automatically label new pictures of dogs and cats.

      Unsupervised would be when you want to see how the pictures structurally relate to each other by color or scene or whatever.

      Semi-supervised is where you have a ton of pictures and only some are labelled and you want to use the unlabeled and the labelled to help you in turn label new pictures in the future.

  5. Frank M November 12, 2016 at 7:38 am #

    This was a really good read, so thanks for writing and publishing it.

    Question for you. I have constructed a Random Forest model, so I’m using supervised learning, and I’m being asked to run an unlabeled data set through it. But I won’t have the actual results of this model, so I can’t determine accuracy on it until I have the actual result of it.

    So my question is… how can I run a set of data through a ML model if I don’t have labels for it?

    For further clarity and context, I’m running a random forest model to predict a binary classification label. I get the first few data points relatively quickly, but the label takes 30 days to become clear.

    Maybe none of this makes sense, but I appreciate any direction you could possibly give.

    Many thanks,


    • Jason Brownlee November 14, 2016 at 7:30 am #

      Thanks Frank. Great question.

      You will need to collect historical data to develop and evaluate your model.

      Once created, it sounds like you will need to wait 30 days before you can evaluate the ongoing performance of the model’s predictions.

  6. Ann November 17, 2016 at 8:29 pm #

    Hi Jason,
    Have done a program to classify if a customer(client) will subscribe for term deposit or not..
    dataset used: bank dataset from uci machine learning repository
    algorithm used: 1. random forest algorithm with CART to generate decision trees and 2.random forest algorithm with HAC4.5 to generate decision trees.

    my question is how do i determine the accuracy of 1 and 2 and find the best one???

    am really new to this field..please ignore my stupidity
    thanks in advance

  7. Nihad Almahrooq December 1, 2016 at 6:17 pm #

    Hi Jason, greater work you are making I wish you the best you deserving it.

    My question: I want to use ML to solve problems of network infrastructure data information. You know missing, typo, discrepancy. Fundamentals in knowledge and expertise are essential though need some ML direction and research more. Can you provide or shed light off that? And how? If you prefer we can communicate directly at

    Thanks and please forgive me if the approach seems awkward as startup and recently joint your connections it’s may be rushing!

    • Jason Brownlee December 2, 2016 at 8:14 am #

      Hi Nihad, that is an interesting application.

      Machine learning might not be the best approach for fixing typos and such. Nevertheless, the first step would be to collect a dataset and try to deeply understand the types of examples the algorithm would have to learn.

      This post might help you dive deeper into your problem:

      I hope this helps as a start, best of luck.

  8. Nischay December 24, 2016 at 8:11 am #

    Splendid work! A helpful measure for my semester exams. Thanks!!

  9. Sam January 1, 2017 at 4:11 am #

    hello Jason, greater work you are making I wish you the best you deserving it.
    I want to find an online algorithm to cluster scientific workflow data to minimize run time and system overhead so it can map these workflow tasks to a distributed resources like clouds .The clustered data should be mapped to these available resources in a balanced way that guarantees no resource is over utilized while other resource is idle.

    I came a cross a horizontal clustering ,vertical clustering but these technique are static and user should determine the number of clusters and number of tasks in each cluster in advance …

    • Jason Brownlee January 1, 2017 at 5:25 am #

      Hi Sam,

      Thanks for your support.

      Off-the-cuff, this sounds like a dynamic programming or constraint satisfaction problem rather than machine learning.

  10. Marcus January 6, 2017 at 6:55 am #

    Hi Jason, this post is really helpful for my Cognitive Neural Network revision!

    I have a question of a historical nature, relating to how supervised learning algorithms evolved:
    Some early supervised learning methods allowed the threshold to be adjusted during learning. Why is that not necessary with the newer supervised learning algorithms?

    Is this because they (e.g. the Delta Rule) adjust the weights on a running basis to minimize error, which supersedes the need for threshold adjustment? Or is there something more subtle going on in the newer algorithms that eliminates the need for threshold adjustment? Thank you in advance for any insight you can provide on this.

    • Jason Brownlee January 6, 2017 at 9:14 am #

      I don’t think I have enough context Marcus. It sounds like you may be referring specifically to stochastic gradient descent.

      I’m not really an algorithm historian, I’d refer you to the seminal papers on the topic.

  11. David Lehmann February 17, 2017 at 3:52 am #

    Hi Jason – Thanks so much for the informative post. I think I am missing something basic. Once a model is trained with labeled data (supervised), how does additional unlabeled data help improve the model? For example, how do newly uploaded pictures (presumably unlabeled) to Google Photos help further improve the model (assuming it does so)? Or how does new voice data (again unlabeled) help make a machine learning-based voice recognition system better? i understand conceptually how labeled data could drive a model but unclear how it helps if you don’t really know what the data represents.

    Thanks! Dave

    • Jason Brownlee February 17, 2017 at 10:01 am #

      Great question Dave.

      Generally, we can use unlabelled data to help initialize large models, like deep neural networks.

      More specifically, we can label unlabelled data, have it corroborate the prediction if needed, and use that as input to update or retrain a model to make be better for future predictions.

      Does that help?

      • Dave Lehmann February 18, 2017 at 2:50 am #

        yes thanks. So the data ultimately needs to be labeled to be useful in improving the model? Keeping with the Google Photos use case, all the millions of photos uploaded everyday then doesn’t help the model unless someone manually labels them and then runs those through the training? Guess I was hoping there was some way intelligence could be discerned from the unlabeled data (unsupervised) to improve on the original model but that does not appear to be the case right? thanks again for the help – Dave

        • Jason Brownlee February 18, 2017 at 8:43 am #

          There very well may be, I’m just not across it.

  12. Rohit Thakur March 20, 2017 at 10:48 pm #

    Can you write a blog post on Reinforcement Learning explaining how does it work, in context of Robotics ?

  13. Hansa April 12, 2017 at 8:05 pm #

    Hi Jason,

    I am trying to solve machine learning problem for Incidents in Health & safety industry.
    I want to recommend the corrective or preventive actions based on the Incident happening at given site.
    I am trying to understand which algorithm works best for this.
    Could you please share your thoughts.


  14. Aigerim April 18, 2017 at 11:08 pm #

    I need help in solving a problem. I am writing thesis about Unsupervised Learning of Morphology of Turkish language. It is my first thesis about this area. My question is this: I have to write math model of morphology and I am trying to understand which algorithm works best for this. Could you please give me same important information. Please help me understand!

  15. lilya April 23, 2017 at 7:06 pm #

    Hi Jason,

    please I need help in solving my problem which is : i want to do supervised clustering of regions ( classify regions having as response variable : frequence of accidents ( numeric response) and explanatory variables like : density of population , density of the trafic) i want to do this using Random forest is it possible ?

  16. Nuwan C April 27, 2017 at 12:14 pm #

    Hi Json,
    Thnc for the article and it is wonderful help for a beginner and I have a little clarification about the categorization.

    I saw some articles devide supervice learning and unsupervise and reinforcement.

    Is that same meaning of semi supervising and reinforcement gives?

  17. violet May 5, 2017 at 3:09 pm #

    Good one! Thanks a lot. Jason, you did great!It was so simplified. But I will love to have an insight as simplified as this on Linear regression algorithm in supervised machine. Thanks once more

  18. Anubhav May 23, 2017 at 8:00 pm #

    Good one! I an novice to ML. So Timeseries based predictive model will fall under which category Supervised, Unsupervised or Sem-supervised? and why?

  19. Balaji June 20, 2017 at 2:36 am #

    HI Jasan
    simple and easy to understand contents.
    I am an ML enthusiast looking for material that groups important and most used algorithms in to supervised and unsupervised.

    Supervised – Regression, Classification, Decision tree etc..
    Unsupervised – Cluster, etc..

    do you have ?

  20. Eashan Roy July 1, 2017 at 5:18 am #

    Given data on how 1000 medical patients respond to an experiment drug( such as effectiveness of treatment, side effects) discover whether there are different categories or types of patients in terms of how they respond to the drug and if so what these categories are.

    Is this supervised or unsupervised learning ?

    • Jason Brownlee July 1, 2017 at 6:38 am #

      Sounds like unsupervised to me.

      • David July 3, 2017 at 5:37 pm #

        I have over 1million sample input queries.. I want to classify into genuine or malicious query.. Every query consist of keywords but there are some specific keywords that may help identify malicious query or not. However not every of the possible malicious keyword may consider the whole query malicious… I’m not sure how to present my problem here but Let me ask this first… Is it possible to have 2 levels of classification(supervised) and 1 level of clustering(unsupervised) in solving a problem like this..?

  21. Sana August 2, 2017 at 12:22 am #

    Thanks Jason it is really helpful me in my semester exam

  22. Blessing August 12, 2017 at 11:59 am #

    Hi Jason, thank you for the post. I have a question. Does an unsupervised algorithm search for a final hypothesis and if so, what is the hypothesis used for. Are target functions involved in unsupervised learning? What does an unsupervised algorithm actually do?
    I understand supervised learning as an approach where training data is fed into an algorithm to learn the hypothesis that estimates the target function. However, for an unsupervised learning, for example, clustering, what does the clustering algorithm actually do? what does “concept learning” mean when it comes to unsupervised machine learning? I noticed that most books define concept learning with respect to supervised learning. Thank you

    • Jason Brownlee August 13, 2017 at 9:45 am #

      I don’t like unsupervised methods in general – I don’t find their results objective – I don’t think they are falsifiable therefore I can’t judge if they’re useful.

      They work by applying a methodology/process to data to get an outcome, then it is up to the practitioner to interpret the results – hopefully objectively.

      You’ll notice that I don’t cover unsupervised learning algorithms on my blog – this is the reason.

  23. abhi August 30, 2017 at 2:25 pm #

    Hi Jason,

    I am following your Tutorials from Last couple of weeks. Thanks for such awesome Tutorials for beginners.

    I have one problem for which I want to use ML algorithm. I tried Cats and Dogs for small dataset and I can predict correct output with Binary Cross entropy.

    Now To apply to my own dataset problem I want to classify images as Weather they are Cat or Dog or any other(if I provide Lion image). But all I get is only 0 & 1 for cat and dog class.

    Model.predict should give me different output if image is not cat or dog.
    Also , How Can I get % prediction that says. Yes this image is quite similar to cat/dot with test result accuracy as 80% or more. If I provide mountain/lion image then it should give me output as it is 10% or less than 50% so I can say it is not cat or dog but something other??

  24. Keval September 15, 2017 at 12:28 am #

    I am wondering where does a scoring model fit into this structure? I am trying to define my problem as an ML problem, however, I do not have any labeled data as I am just starting to work with the data. The output variable in my case is a score that is calculated based on select features from the dataset. How would you classify this problem and what techniques would you suggest exploring?

  25. Ares September 23, 2017 at 3:02 pm #

    Hii Jason .. Thank you for the post… I am new to Machine Learning…How should i start with Machine learning.. Should i study all the concepts first or should i code algorithms which i study simultaneously ??? Thanks

  26. Ahmed Fathy September 27, 2017 at 3:23 am #

    i have some of images about mango diseases. i want to make segmentation, feature extraction, classification … what is the best and common algorithms for this issue ??

  27. scott October 13, 2017 at 9:51 am #

    Hey there, Jason – Good high-level info. Truthfully, I found the grammar and spelling errors distracting. They make software for that. 😉

  28. SANDEEP S KUMAR November 4, 2017 at 12:14 pm #

    what are the examples of semi supervised learning algorithms

  29. Aditi Kadam November 6, 2017 at 5:57 am #

    Thank you! It was a great explanation

  30. Vinu Nair December 7, 2017 at 5:07 pm #

    Hi Jason,
    Good work.Could you please help me to find a algorithm for below mentioned problem .
    We have number of record groups which have been grouped manually . We needs to automate these grouping by analysis on this history data.

  31. Vinu Nair December 7, 2017 at 10:12 pm #

    Could you please share some algorithm for finding matching patterns

  32. Haneen December 20, 2017 at 9:52 pm #

    you are amazing, Thank you so match

  33. Ali December 21, 2017 at 10:44 pm #

    What is supervised and unsupervised learning? Which learning techniques could be better in particular machine learning domain? Which technique has limitations and why?

  34. Krishna December 27, 2017 at 3:31 pm #

    Very helpful to understand what is supervised and unsupervised learning. Its very better when you explain with real time applications lucidly.

  35. Pulkit Aggarwal December 28, 2017 at 11:00 pm #

    Hello, Sir Jason I’m new to Machine Learning and want to learn it from the scratch.Please guide me to do so.

  36. MUHAMMAD OMER January 12, 2018 at 10:16 pm #

    What kind of data we use reinforcement learning?
    guide me.

  37. Ritesh K. Patel (PhD) January 13, 2018 at 6:25 am #


  38. Glad January 18, 2018 at 8:23 am #

    Nice one, but I need more explanation on unsupervised learning please

    • Jason Brownlee January 18, 2018 at 10:15 am #

      What questions do you have about unsupervised learning exactly?

  39. Glad January 22, 2018 at 6:58 am #

    Examples of unsupervised machine learning

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