Author Archive | Jason Brownlee

A Demonstration of Memory in a Long Short-Term Memory Network

Demonstration of Memory with a Long Short-Term Memory Network in Python

Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks are a type of recurrent neural network capable of learning over long sequences. This differentiates them from regular multilayer neural networks that do not have memory and can only learn a mapping between input and output patterns. It is important to understand the capabilities of complex neural networks like LSTMs […]

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How to Convert a Time Series to a Supervised Learning Problem in Python

How to Convert a Time Series to a Supervised Learning Problem in Python

Machine learning methods like deep learning can be used for time series forecasting. Before machine learning can be used, time series forecasting problems must be re-framed as supervised learning problems. From a sequence to pairs of input and output sequences. In this tutorial, you will discover how to transform univariate and multivariate time series forecasting […]

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How to Use Weight Regularization with LSTM Networks for Time Series Forecasting

How to Use Weight Regularization with LSTM Networks for Time Series Forecasting

Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models are a recurrent neural network capable of learning sequences of observations. This may make them a network well suited to time series forecasting. An issue with LSTMs is that they can easily overfit training data, reducing their predictive skill. Weight regularization is a technique for imposing constraints (such as L1 […]

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How to Use Statistical Significance Tests to Interpret Machine Learning Results

How to Use Statistical Significance Tests to Interpret Machine Learning Results

It is good practice to gather a population of results when comparing two different machine learning algorithms or when comparing the same algorithm with different configurations. Repeating each experimental run 30 or more times gives you a population of results from which you can calculate the mean expected performance, given the stochastic nature of most […]

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