The use of machine learning methods on time series data requires feature engineering. A univariate time series dataset is only comprised of a sequence of observations. These must be transformed into input and output features in order to use supervised learning algorithms. The problem is that there is little limit to the type and number […]

# Archive | Time Series

## Sensitivity Analysis of History Size to Forecast Skill with ARIMA in Python

How much history is required for a time series forecast model? This is a problem-specific question that we can investigate by designing an experiment. In this tutorial, you will discover the effect that history size has on the skill of an ARIMA forecast model in Python. Specifically, in this tutorial, you will: Load a standard […]

## How to Make Out-of-Sample Forecasts with ARIMA in Python

Making out-of-sample forecasts can be confusing when getting started with time series data. The statsmodels Python API provides functions for performing one-step and multi-step out-of-sample forecasts. In this tutorial, you will clear up any confusion you have about making out-of-sample forecasts with time series data in Python. After completing this tutorial, you will know: How […]

## Time Series Forecasting with Python 7-Day Mini-Course

From Developer to Time Series Forecaster in 7 Days. Python is one of the fastest-growing platforms for applied machine learning. In this mini-course, you will discover how you can get started, build accurate models and confidently complete predictive modeling time series forecasting projects using Python in 7 days. This is a big and important post. […]

## 4 Strategies for Multi-Step Time Series Forecasting

Time series forecasting is typically discussed where only a one-step prediction is required. What about when you need to predict multiple time steps into the future? Predicting multiple time steps into the future is called multi-step time series forecasting. There are four main strategies that you can use for multi-step forecasting. In this post, you […]

## White Noise Time Series with Python

White noise is an important concept in time series forecasting. If a time series is white noise, it is a sequence of random numbers and cannot be predicted. If the series of forecast errors are not white noise, it suggests improvements could be made to the predictive model. In this tutorial, you will discover white […]

## Python Environment for Time Series Forecasting

The Python ecosystem is growing and may become the dominant platform for applied machine learning. The primary rationale for adopting Python for time series forecasting is because it is a general-purpose programming language that you can use both for R&D and in production. In this post, you will discover the Python ecosystem for time series […]

## 10 Challenging Machine Learning Time Series Forecasting Problems

Machine learning methods have a lot to offer for time series forecasting problems. A difficulty is that most methods are demonstrated on simple univariate time series forecasting problems. In this post, you will discover a suite of challenging time series forecasting problems. These are problems where classical linear statistical methods will not be sufficient and […]

## How to Save an ARIMA Time Series Forecasting Model in Python

The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model, or ARIMA, is a popular linear model for time series analysis and forecasting. The statsmodels library provides an implementation of ARIMA for use in Python. ARIMA models can be saved to file for later use in making predictions on new data. There is a bug in the current version […]

## How to Difference a Time Series Dataset with Python

Differencing is a popular and widely used data transform for time series. In this tutorial, you will discover how to apply the difference operation to your time series data with Python. After completing this tutorial, you will know: About the differencing operation, including the configuration of the lag difference and the difference order. How to […]