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Archive | Deep Learning Performance

How to Calibrate Probabilities for Imbalanced Classification

A Gentle Introduction to Batch Normalization for Deep Neural Networks

Training deep neural networks with tens of layers is challenging as they can be sensitive to the initial random weights and configuration of the learning algorithm. One possible reason for this difficulty is the distribution of the inputs to layers deep in the network may change after each mini-batch when the weights are updated. This […]

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Line Plot of Cosine Annealing Learning Rate Schedule

Snapshot Ensemble Deep Learning Neural Network in Python

Model ensembles can achieve lower generalization error than single models but are challenging to develop with deep learning neural networks given the computational cost of training each single model. An alternative is to train multiple model snapshots during a single training run and combine their predictions to make an ensemble prediction. A limitation of this […]

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Four Scatter Plots of the Circles Dataset Varied by the Amount of Statistical Noise

Impact of Dataset Size on Deep Learning Model Skill And Performance Estimates

Supervised learning is challenging, although the depths of this challenge are often learned then forgotten or willfully ignored. This must be the case, because dwelling too long on this challenge may result in a pessimistic outlook. In spite of the challenge, we continue to wield supervised learning algorithms and they perform well in practice. Fundamental […]

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Visualization of Stacked Generalization Ensemble of Neural Network Models

Stacking Ensemble for Deep Learning Neural Networks in Python

Model averaging is an ensemble technique where multiple sub-models contribute equally to a combined prediction. Model averaging can be improved by weighting the contributions of each sub-model to the combined prediction by the expected performance of the submodel. This can be extended further by training an entirely new model to learn how to best combine […]

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Line Plot Learning Curves of Model Accuracy on Train and Test Dataset over Each Training Epoch

How to Develop a Weighted Average Ensemble for Deep Learning Neural Networks

A modeling averaging ensemble combines the prediction from each model equally and often results in better performance on average than a given single model. Sometimes there are very good models that we wish to contribute more to an ensemble prediction, and perhaps less skillful models that may be useful but should contribute less to an […]

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Line Plot Showing Single Model Accuracy (blue dots) vs Accuracy of Ensembles of Varying Size With a Horizontal Voting Ensemble

How to Develop a Horizontal Voting Deep Learning Ensemble to Reduce Variance

Predictive modeling problems where the training dataset is small relative to the number of unlabeled examples are challenging. Neural networks can perform well on these types of problems, although they can suffer from high variance in model performance as measured on a training or hold-out validation datasets. This makes choosing which model to use as […]

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