Author Archive | Jason Brownlee

What Is a Gradient in Machine Learning?

What Is a Gradient in Machine Learning?

Gradient is a commonly used term in optimization and machine learning. For example, deep learning neural networks are fit using stochastic gradient descent, and many standard optimization algorithms used to fit machine learning algorithms use gradient information. In order to understand what a gradient is, you need to understand what a derivative is from the […]

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Contour Plot of the Test Objective Function With Adadelta Search Results Shown

Gradient Descent With Adadelta from Scratch

Gradient descent is an optimization algorithm that follows the negative gradient of an objective function in order to locate the minimum of the function. A limitation of gradient descent is that it uses the same step size (learning rate) for each input variable. AdaGradn and RMSProp are extensions to gradient descent that add a self-adaptive […]

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What Is Semi-Supervised Learning

What Is Semi-Supervised Learning

Semi-supervised learning is a learning problem that involves a small number of labeled examples and a large number of unlabeled examples. Learning problems of this type are challenging as neither supervised nor unsupervised learning algorithms are able to make effective use of the mixtures of labeled and untellable data. As such, specialized semis-supervised learning algorithms […]

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Iterated Local Search From Scratch in Python

Iterated Local Search From Scratch in Python

Iterated Local Search is a stochastic global optimization algorithm. It involves the repeated application of a local search algorithm to modified versions of a good solution found previously. In this way, it is like a clever version of the stochastic hill climbing with random restarts algorithm. The intuition behind the algorithm is that random restarts […]

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Learning Curves for the XGBoost Model With Smaller Learning Rate

Tune XGBoost Performance With Learning Curves

XGBoost is a powerful and effective implementation of the gradient boosting ensemble algorithm. It can be challenging to configure the hyperparameters of XGBoost models, which often leads to using large grid search experiments that are both time consuming and computationally expensive. An alternate approach to configuring XGBoost models is to evaluate the performance of the […]

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