Test-time augmentation, or TTA for short, is a technique for improving the skill of predictive models. It is typically used to improve the predictive performance of deep learning models on image datasets where predictions are averaged across multiple augmented versions of each image in the test dataset. Although popular with image datasets and neural network […]

# Search results for "normalize"

## Singular Value Decomposition for Dimensionality Reduction in Python

Reducing the number of input variables for a predictive model is referred to as dimensionality reduction. Fewer input variables can result in a simpler predictive model that may have better performance when making predictions on new data. Perhaps the more popular technique for dimensionality reduction in machine learning is Singular Value Decomposition, or SVD for […]

## Principal Component Analysis for Dimensionality Reduction in Python

Reducing the number of input variables for a predictive model is referred to as dimensionality reduction. Fewer input variables can result in a simpler predictive model that may have better performance when making predictions on new data. Perhaps the most popular technique for dimensionality reduction in machine learning is Principal Component Analysis, or PCA for […]

## Introduction to Dimensionality Reduction for Machine Learning

The number of input variables or features for a dataset is referred to as its dimensionality. Dimensionality reduction refers to techniques that reduce the number of input variables in a dataset. More input features often make a predictive modeling task more challenging to model, more generally referred to as the curse of dimensionality. High-dimensionality statistics […]

## 4 Distance Measures for Machine Learning

Distance measures play an important role in machine learning. They provide the foundation for many popular and effective machine learning algorithms like k-nearest neighbors for supervised learning and k-means clustering for unsupervised learning. Different distance measures must be chosen and used depending on the types of the data. As such, it is important to know […]

## PyTorch Tutorial: How to Develop Deep Learning Models with Python

Predictive modeling with deep learning is a skill that modern developers need to know. PyTorch is the premier open-source deep learning framework developed and maintained by Facebook. At its core, PyTorch is a mathematical library that allows you to perform efficient computation and automatic differentiation on graph-based models. Achieving this directly is challenging, although thankfully, […]

## Neural Networks are Function Approximation Algorithms

Supervised learning in machine learning can be described in terms of function approximation. Given a dataset comprised of inputs and outputs, we assume that there is an unknown underlying function that is consistent in mapping inputs to outputs in the target domain and resulted in the dataset. We then use supervised learning algorithms to approximate […]

## Imbalanced Multiclass Classification with the E.coli Dataset

Multiclass classification problems are those where a label must be predicted, but there are more than two labels that may be predicted. These are challenging predictive modeling problems because a sufficiently representative number of examples of each class is required for a model to learn the problem. It is made challenging when the number of […]

## Step-By-Step Framework for Imbalanced Classification Projects

Classification predictive modeling problems involve predicting a class label for a given set of inputs. It is a challenging problem in general, especially if little is known about the dataset, as there are tens, if not hundreds, of machine learning algorithms to choose from. The problem is made significantly more difficult if the distribution of […]

## Imbalanced Classification with the Adult Income Dataset

Many binary classification tasks do not have an equal number of examples from each class, e.g. the class distribution is skewed or imbalanced. A popular example is the adult income dataset that involves predicting personal income levels as above or below $50,000 per year based on personal details such as relationship and education level. There […]