Machine learning is a large field of study that overlaps with and inherits ideas from many related fields such as artificial intelligence. The focus of the field is learning, that is, acquiring skills or knowledge from experience. Most commonly, this means synthesizing useful concepts from historical data. As such, there are many different types of […]

# Search results for "Machine Learning"

## A Gentle Introduction to Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) for Machine Learning

Density estimation is the problem of estimating the probability distribution for a sample of observations from a problem domain. Typically, estimating the entire distribution is intractable, and instead, we are happy to have the expected value of the distribution, such as the mean or mode. Maximum a Posteriori or MAP for short is a Bayesian-based […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Machine Learning

Density estimation is the problem of estimating the probability distribution for a sample of observations from a problem domain. There are many techniques for solving density estimation, although a common framework used throughout the field of machine learning is maximum likelihood estimation. Maximum likelihood estimation involves defining a likelihood function for calculating the conditional probability […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Cross-Entropy for Machine Learning

Cross-entropy is commonly used in machine learning as a loss function. Cross-entropy is a measure from the field of information theory, building upon entropy and generally calculating the difference between two probability distributions. It is closely related to but is different from KL divergence that calculates the relative entropy between two probability distributions, whereas cross-entropy […]

## How to Calculate the KL Divergence for Machine Learning

It is often desirable to quantify the difference between probability distributions for a given random variable. This occurs frequently in machine learning, when we may be interested in calculating the difference between an actual and observed probability distribution. This can be achieved using techniques from information theory, such as the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KL divergence), or […]

## Information Gain and Mutual Information for Machine Learning

Information gain calculates the reduction in entropy or surprise from transforming a dataset in some way. It is commonly used in the construction of decision trees from a training dataset, by evaluating the information gain for each variable, and selecting the variable that maximizes the information gain, which in turn minimizes the entropy and best […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Bayes Theorem for Machine Learning

Bayes Theorem provides a principled way for calculating a conditional probability. It is a deceptively simple calculation, although it can be used to easily calculate the conditional probability of events where intuition often fails. Although it is a powerful tool in the field of probability, Bayes Theorem is also widely used in the field of […]

## Probability for Machine Learning (7-Day Mini-Course)

Probability for Machine Learning Crash Course.Get on top of the probability used in machine learning in 7 days. Probability is a field of mathematics that is universally agreed to be the bedrock for machine learning. Although probability is a large field with many esoteric theories and findings, the nuts and bolts, tools and notations taken […]

## Continuous Probability Distributions for Machine Learning

The probability for a continuous random variable can be summarized with a continuous probability distribution. Continuous probability distributions are encountered in machine learning, most notably in the distribution of numerical input and output variables for models and in the distribution of errors made by models. Knowledge of the normal continuous probability distribution is also required […]

## Probability for Machine Learning

Probability for Machine Learning Discover How To Harness Uncertainty With Python Machine Learning DOES NOT MAKE SENSE Without Probability What is Probability?…it’s about handling uncertainty Uncertainty involves making decisions with incomplete information, and this is the way we generally operate in the world. Handling uncertainty is typically described using everyday words like chance, luck, and […]