Machine Learning or ML is the study of systems that can learn from experience (e.g. data that describes the past). You can learn more about the definition of machine learning in this post: What is Machine Learning? Predictive Modeling is a subfield of machine learning that is what most people mean when they talk about […]

# Search results for "Artificial Intelligence"

## 14 Different Types of Learning in Machine Learning

Machine learning is a large field of study that overlaps with and inherits ideas from many related fields such as artificial intelligence. The focus of the field is learning, that is, acquiring skills or knowledge from experience. Most commonly, this means synthesizing useful concepts from historical data. As such, there are many different types of […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) for Machine Learning

Density estimation is the problem of estimating the probability distribution for a sample of observations from a problem domain. Typically, estimating the entire distribution is intractable, and instead, we are happy to have the expected value of the distribution, such as the mean or mode. Maximum a Posteriori or MAP for short is a Bayesian-based […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Markov Chain Monte Carlo for Probability

Probabilistic inference involves estimating an expected value or density using a probabilistic model. Often, directly inferring values is not tractable with probabilistic models, and instead, approximation methods must be used. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling provides a class of algorithms for systematic random sampling from high-dimensional probability distributions. Unlike Monte Carlo sampling methods that are […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Monte Carlo Sampling for Probability

Monte Carlo methods are a class of techniques for randomly sampling a probability distribution. There are many problem domains where describing or estimating the probability distribution is relatively straightforward, but calculating a desired quantity is intractable. This may be due to many reasons, such as the stochastic nature of the domain or an exponential number […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Expectation-Maximization (EM Algorithm)

Maximum likelihood estimation is an approach to density estimation for a dataset by searching across probability distributions and their parameters. It is a general and effective approach that underlies many machine learning algorithms, although it requires that the training dataset is complete, e.g. all relevant interacting random variables are present. Maximum likelihood becomes intractable if […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Logistic Regression With Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Logistic regression is a model for binary classification predictive modeling. The parameters of a logistic regression model can be estimated by the probabilistic framework called maximum likelihood estimation. Under this framework, a probability distribution for the target variable (class label) must be assumed and then a likelihood function defined that calculates the probability of observing […]

## Develop k-Nearest Neighbors in Python From Scratch

In this tutorial you are going to learn about the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm including how it works and how to implement it from scratch in Python (without libraries). A simple but powerful approach for making predictions is to use the most similar historical examples to the new data. This is the principle behind the k-Nearest Neighbors […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Information Entropy

Information theory is a subfield of mathematics concerned with transmitting data across a noisy channel. A cornerstone of information theory is the idea of quantifying how much information there is in a message. More generally, this can be used to quantify the information in an event and a random variable, called entropy, and is calculated […]

## A Gentle Introduction to Bayesian Belief Networks

Probabilistic models can define relationships between variables and be used to calculate probabilities. For example, fully conditional models may require an enormous amount of data to cover all possible cases, and probabilities may be intractable to calculate in practice. Simplifying assumptions such as the conditional independence of all random variables can be effective, such as […]